Learning Egyptian Hieroglyphs - Lesson 3 (Part III)by Caroline Seawright
January 14, 2001
Learning to Read Hieroglyphs
I'm going to go through the book, "Egyptian Grammar" by A.H. Gardiner, and try to learn Middle Egyptian hieroglyphs. In this column, I will attempt to share what I learn as I go along!
Meaning of the sdjmf Form
Details of this topic will be discussed later, but it should be noted that the sdjmf form excludes the meaning of hardly any English tense or mood (see the previous lesson, Dependence, Tense and Mood.) Because it is a past tense, it is replaced by another form, the sdjmnf form, which will be described later.
At the moment, render the sdjmf form as the English present tense.
Here are three common uses of the form:
- It is often used without any introductory particle in rendering the equivalent of and English clause of purpose:
habk ssh, djdf skhrk 'Thou sendest the scribe that he may say thy plan'
- It may be used to express a wish:
habk ssh 'Mayest thou send the scribe/Send thou the scribe'
- Preceeded by the particle ykh the fundamental meaning of which seems to be 'then' or 'therefore', it expresses a consequence:
ykh djd sr 'Then the official will say...'
ykh djdk n sak 'Then shalt thou say to thy son...'
|dja||cross, ferry across|
|rsh||rejoice, be glad|
|(var )||wat||road, way, side|
|kat||construction, work, device|
|hr||upon, concerning, because of; before suffixes written|
|m||in, with (of instrument), from as; before suffixes|
Try to translate the following in hieroglyphs, with transliteration sounds:
- The crocodile is in the river
- The moon rejoices when the sun is in his horizon
- Then (ykh) shall thy name be heard by the vizier
- This scribe is in his office by day (and) by night
- The donkey goes down to the city upon another road
- The scribe sends this boat that we may cross in it
- He rejoices because of thy utterance
- This land is in joy when thou art in the sky
- He fares down to this city, his daughter with him
© Caroline 'Kunoichi' Seawright 2001 - present
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